What is open science?
“Open science is the practising of science in a sustainable manner which gives others the opportunity to work with, contribute to and make use of the scientific process. This allows users ‘from outside of the science world’ to influence the research world with questions and ideas and help gather research data.” Nationaal Programma Open Science
What does the OSCN do?
Open Science Community Nijmegen (OSCN) is a community of scholars and other academic workers devoted to maintaining and developing scientific practices that ensure transparency, rigour, and reproducibilty of research and related academic work (the term ‘science’ is used in its broadest, inclusive sense to include humanities and social sciences, i.e. it more suitably refers to open scholarship).
The OSCN is part of the International Network of Open Science & Scholarship Communities. See also our map of OSC’s in The Netherlands.
In 2019 we conducted a survey about open science among academics in Nijmegen. You can view the results here.
How can I contribute to the OSCN?
Anyone affiliated to the Radboud University, Radboud University Medical Center, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics or Hogeschool Arnhem Nijmegen can become a member of the OSCN. You can sign up for our mailinglist or contact us with ideas, suggestions or interesting events: contact [at] openscience-nijmegen.nl
Materials from past events
- Slides to webinar Challenges and new trends in pre-registration by Johannes Algermissen, 09 December, 2020
- Slides to webinar Open Access step-by-step by Jeroen Bos, 10 November, 2020
- Slides to webinar Plan S by Dirk van Gorp, 12 November, 2020
- Slides to webinar Make your code more readable through best coding practices by Arushi Garg, 28 October, 2020
Educational materials and courseware
- Open Science at the Radboud Library
- Managing research data at the Radboud Library
- Open Science for PhD candidates (course by the Radboud library in gROW, need log-in with Radboud credentials)
- Workshop calendar of the Radboud Library
- Open Science MOOC
- Open Science: Sharing Your Research with the World (Online course by TU Delft on edX)
- Webinars by the Center for Open Science (COS, host of Open Science Framework, OSF)
- Foster Open Science MOOC
Diversity and inclusivity
What is diversity?
Diversity is the practice or quality of including or involving people from a range of different social and ethnic backgrounds and of different genders, sexual orientations, etc.
What is inclusivity?
Inclusivity is the practice or policy of providing equal access to opportunities and resources for people who might otherwise be excluded or marginalized, such as those having physical or mental disabilities or belonging to other minority groups.
What is the difference between diversity and inclusivity?
In a diverse environment, you’ll find people from a variety of backgrounds. In an inclusive environment, all of the people in the environment will have equal status. Diversity is inviting lots of different people to your party; inclusivity is making sure that each person enjoys the party as much as the next person.
Are diversity and inclusivity part of Open Science?
Yes! Science is only truly Open if it actively involves people from all kinds of diverse backgrounds.
What are the barriers to Open Science for people from minorities?
Although diversity should be a part of truly Open Science, the current Open Science movement poses some barriers to people from certain backgrounds. This is in part due to gatekeeping by people from dominant social groups who hold structural privileges, a phenomenon also known as ##bropenscience (cf. Whitaker and Guest, 2020). For example, recent research and opinion pieces criticising pre-registration and the focus on replication studies evoked a lot of discussion and backlash on Twitter. Gatekeeping is only part of the problem, though, as there are many other barriers that keep people from diverse backgrounds from truly engaging with Open Science.
A recent report by the Society for the Improvement of Psychological Science and a comment by Sanderson Onie in Nature highlight some of the barriers people from marginalised and/or underrepresented groups face when trying to do Open Science, including but not limited to:
- financial barriers (e.g. registration fees, travel costs, costs for software, access to journal articles)
- administrative barriers (e.g. visa/travel restrictions)
- organizational barriers (e.g. an inability to attend events due to a lack of child care)
- accessibility barriers (e.g. language barriers, lack of sign language interpreting, lack of wheelchair access)
- structural barriers (e.g. unstable internet access, unstable political environment)
- lack of knowledge (e.g. lack of training opportunities in doing Open Science, lack of Research Integrity guidelines)
What can I do to promote diversity at my institution?
Kirstie Whitaker and Olivia Guest (2020) include some general tips for promoting diversity and inclusivity in their piece on #bropenscience. We’ve highlighted a few here, but be sure to read their article for more.
- If you’re organising an event, make sure it’s accessible to underrepresented minorities. This can be achieved by e.g. captioning videos, holding in-person events where underrepresented groups are likely to be awarded a visa and providing child care at in-person events.
- At any point in time, make sure to pay attention to who is making decisions within a group, find out what you can do to lift up others around you and listen to those who experience structural and systemic biases.
Alex Chan provides tips for how to make your event inclusive, from financial assistance to making the venue accessible and from the snacks you provide to giving people coloured lanyards to indicate how social they want to be.
Finally, Paula Masuzzo also provides useful information for making your events diverse and inclusive: engage with a range of diverse communities, reach out, be kind, seek aid, give aid, support, recommend, acknowledge, advertise, nominate and motivate each other.
What is the standpoint of the Open Science Community Nijmegen on diversity and inclusivity?
At the Open Science Community Nijmegen, we are committed to creating an inclusive Open Science environment in which people from different backgrounds are welcomed and their voices are heard.
We are always open to suggestions from others, so if you have any tips for us to make our events more diverse and inclusive, or for other resources we can include here, please get in touch.
Further reading and resources
- Chan, A. (2019). Ideas for inclusive/accessible events.
- Masuzzo, P. (2019). From Open Science to Inclusive Science.
- Nosek, B. (2017). How can we improve diversity and inclusion in the open science movement?
- Onie, S. (2020). Redesigning Open Science For Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
- Pownall, M. et al. (2020). Navigating Open Science as Early Career Feminist Researchers.
- Steltenpohl, C. et al. (2021). Society for the Improvement of Psychological Science Global Engagement Task Force Report.
- Whitaker, K. and Guest, O. (2020). #bropenscience is broken science.
What is preregistration?
Preregistration describes the practice of specifying hypotheses, study conditions, pre-processing pathways, and analyses prior to data analysis. The general purpose of preregistration is to increase transparency and increase the ease of evaluation of the sincerity of statistical tests.
- Open Science Framework: What is Preregistration
- Preregistration via aspredicted.org
- Preregistration for quantitative research in psychology template
- Pre-registration and Registered Reports: A primer from the UK Reproducibility Network (UKRN)
- Preregistration information and help at the Behavioural Science Institite(BSI)
- Erik Bijleveld: 13 seconds video: Why preregistration is useful in student projects.
- Mariella Paul: Harry Potter and the Methods of Reproducibility: A brief Introduction to Open Science
- Zotero library on published preregistered studies
- Munafò, M. R., Nosek, B. A., Bishop, D. V. M., Button, K. S., Chambers, C. D., Percie, N., … Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2017). A manifesto for reproducible science. Human Nature Behavior, 1, 1–9.
- Nosek, B. A., Ebersole, C. R., DeHaven, A. C., & Mellor, D. T. (2018). The preregistration revolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115, 2600–2606.
- Paul, M., Govaart, G. H., & Schettino, A. (2021). Making ERP research more transparent: Guidelines for preregistration. International Journal of Psychophysiology.
- Wagenmakers, E.-J., Wetzels, R., Borsboom, D., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Kievit, R. a. (2012). An agenda for purely confirmatory research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 627–633.
When is preregistration useful?
Some people argue that the point of preregistration is transparency and to limit researcher degrees of freedom and protect against confirmation bias. From that point of view, even if you’re doing entirely exploratory research, it makes sense to preregister that you have no hypothesis or planned analysis. Thus, preregistration is always useful.
Other people argue that the point of preregistration is to distinguish confirmatory and exploratory research. For confirmatory research, a lot of details most be known in advance (e.g. expectable effect size to compute power for given sample size). Under this point of view, preregistration is only warranted if all the necessary ingredients are known; otherwise preregistration is not useful.
To make up your own mind, you might consider the following resources:
- Debates surrounding preregistration:
- Nosek, B. A., Beck, E. D., Campbell, L., Flake, J. K., Hardwicke, T. E., Mellor, D. T., … & Vazire, S. (2019). Preregistration is hard, and worthwhile. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 23(10), 815-818.
- Szollosi, A., Kellen, D., Navarro, D. J., Shiffrin, R., van Rooij, I., Van Zandt, T., & Donkin, C. (2019). Is preregistration worthwhile. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(2), 94-95.
- Navarro, D. (2020). Paths in strange spaces: A comment on preregistration. psyArXiv.
- Reasons why to preregister:
- Bennett, C.M., Miller, M.B., Wolford, G.L., 2009. Neural correlates of interspecies perspective taking in the post-mortem Atlantic Salmon: an argument for multiple comparisons correction. Neuroimage 47 (Suppl. 1), S125.
- Kriegeskorte, N., Simmons, W. K., Bellgowan, P. S., & Baker, C. I. (2009). Circular analysis in systems neuroscience: the dangers of double dipping. Nature Neuroscience, 12(5), 535.
- Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology: Undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1359-1366.
- Vul, E., Harris, C., Winkielman, P., & Pashler, H. (2009). Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(3), 274-290.
What is a Registered Report?
A Registered Report describes a scientific paper in which the theoretical framework, hypotheses, sample size justifications, study procedure and analyses are submitted to a journal and evaluated by expert reviewers prior to data collection. Papers accepted as Registered Reports will be published regardless of the findings as the study provided the study followed the approved study plan. Therefore, Registered Reports reduce publication bias (Scheel et al., 2021).
Registered Reports Materials:
- Overview page featuring guides and best practices for Registered Reports
- Editorial introducing the concept of Registered Reports
- Overview and comparison of all journals offering registered reports
- Zotero library on existing registered reports
How do I profit from making my project reproducible?
- easily find results back when you are asked for them (e.g. by co-authors, supervisors, reviewers,…)
- easily redo an entire analysis once a tiny bit of it has changed (e.g. ideas of continuous integration)
- re-use your own code at later stages for new analyses or even in different projects
- get credit by other people wo re-use your code for their projects
- get your code checked by other people for potential errors
How do others profit from making my project reproducible?
- re-use your code in their projects to save time
- re-use your data to answer their own research questions without the need to spend time and money on acquiring new data
- Hunt, L. T. (2019). The life-changing magic of sharing your data. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(4), 312-315.
- van Vliet, M. (2020). Seven quick tips for analysis scripts in neuroimaging. PLOS Computational Biology, 16(3), e1007358.
- Best Practices for Programming in R, slides to webinar by Arushi Garg, 28 October, 2020
- #Matlab / #Octave: divide and conquer m-scripts, Youtube lecture by Agah Karakuzu at the OHBM Hackathon 2020
- Sharing matlab_code, lecture slides by Aurina Arnatkeviciute on the OSF.
- Naming things, slide deck by Jenny Bryan (UBC, Canada)
Research data management
Why is research data management important?
Research data management (RDM) helps to make conscious decisions about research data and keeps data safe. It also encourages open science and enables the reuse of data.
How to start with a data management plan?
You can make a good start on managing your data by writing a data management plan (DMP). For this, Radboud Library has developed a DMP tool, which you can find here: DMP Tool.
Where can I deposit my materials?
You can use the Research Information Services (RIS) interface to register your publication, to upload the full text of your publication to the Radboud Repository, and to to make a dataset available via the certified DANS EASY archive.
What support does Radboud University offer me regarding research data management?
You can find general research data management information, practical help with the DMP Tool, and specific support via Radboud Library.
RDM Support, RU Library: Offers help surrounding research data management, and giving feedback on your (funder-required) data management plan.
RIS Support, RU Library: Offers help surrounding Research Information Services (RIS).
Radboud Repository Support, RU Library: Offers help surrounding archiving your publications in the Radboud Repository.
- The language archive, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics
- Nijmegen corpora, Centre for Language Studies
- Donders repository, Donders Institute
- Project structure, slide deck by Danielle Navarro (UNSW, Australia)
- protocols.io, document your science pipelines (procedures or analysis pipelines) including version control (like Github)
What is open access?
Open access means that academic information (i.e. your publication or data) is freely accessible to everyone in the world. This means that anyone can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search for and search within the information, or use it in education or in any other way within the legal agreements. See also Open Access Explained at Radboud Library.
What are my options to publish open access?
There are different ways to publish in open access. You can either publish at full open access publishers (Gold open access), at hybrid journals (subscription journals that also offer to publish in open access), or via the Radboud Repository (Green open access). The Max Planck institute has its own repository.
Check the directory for open access journals, or the RU journal browser, or Sherpa/Romeo to find open access options and policies per journal. You can also use the Think.Check.Submit. tool to identify trusted journals and avoid predatory journals.
Does it always cost money to publish open access?
No. If you publish Green open access (also called the “green route”) you don’t pay any article processing charge (APC). In this case you need to make sure that your publication or data is findable in an open, online repository (see above). However, do take into account embargo periods of academic journals. They sometimes probihit you from sharing your paper until the embargo period has passed.
In addition, the VSNU (collective of Dutch universities) has made deals with several publishers to give discounts on APCs researchers affiliated to universities in The Netherlands. You can find out more about these deals here.Similarly, the Max Planck Institute also has a list of open access agreements with publishers
Do I have to publish open access?
That depends. As researcher of the Radboud University / Radboudumc you are not obliged to publish open access. However, if you receive funding (part or whole) for your research, your funder may require you to publish open access. For example NWO, EU, WHO, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation are strongly advocating open access. Always check the funding conditions at the website of your funder.
What support does Radboud University offer me regarding open access publishing?
You can find general open access information, specific information about VSNU open access deals, and further support, via the libguide.
Open Access Support, RU Library: Offers help surrounding open access, deals and discounts with publishers.
Radboud Repository Support, RU Library: Offers help surrounding archiving your publications in the Radboud Repository.
How does theory building relate to Open Science?
Open Science is aiming for reproducible science: Findings should be replicable in independent studies. Studies whose predictions are based on an underlying (cognitive/ neural/ physical/ social/ …) mechanism/ model/ theory will be more likely to replicate than studies that merely focus a on a previously made observation, without any reason why or under which circumstances this observation should arise. In this way, science based on theories or models is rigorous science.
- Borsboom, D., van der Maas, H. L., Dalege, J., Kievit, R. A., & Haig, B. D. (2021). Theory construction methodology: A practical framework for building theories in psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1745691620969647.
- Cummins, R. (2000). How does it work?” versus” what are the laws?”: Two conceptions of psychological explanation. In F. C. Keil & R. A. Wilson (Eds.), Explanation and cognition (pp. 117–144). MIT Press.
- Guest, O., & Martin, A. E. (2020). How computational modeling can force theory building in psychological science. Perspectives of Psychological Science.
- Van Rooij, I., & Baggio, G. (2020). Theory before the test: How to build high-verisimilitude explanatory theories in psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1745691620970604.
- Van Rooij, I., & Blokpoel, M. (2020). Formalizing Verbal Theories. Social Psychology.
- Course on Computational & Formal modeling in the Artificial Intelligence programme at Radboud University
Copyright and licenses
What does CC-BY mean?
Creative Commons (CC) licences aims to make creative works more freely available than is possible through traditional copyright. The idea is that works such as publications can be copied and distributed more easily or that others can elaborate on them.
To distinguish the several CC licenses that can be used, you can consult the Guide to Creative Commons for Scholarly Publications and Educational Resources here: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4090922
How can the library support me to choose the correct licence?
You can contact the Copyright Information Point (CIP), RU Library for help surrounding the rights to your or others publishable work.